- Monitoring Physical Activity and Fitness
- Health-related fitness tests for public health monitoring
- Development and evaluation of a 2-km Walking Test
- Health-related fitness test battery
- Health-related fitness tests for older adults
- Required motor abilities in commonly practised exercise modes
- Physical activity and motor abilities
- Health 2000 and Health 2011
- Exercise Loading and Bone Structure
- KidsOut! — promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior among 8th graders
- Physical Activity as a Medicine
- Counselling, lifestyle and physical activity in maternity care -study (NELLI)
- Effect of physical activity on menopausal symptoms
- Breast Cancer and Exercise
- KÄPY Research – Social Ecological Intervention to Promote Active Commuting to Work
- Prevention of Chronic Low Back Pain in Female Nurses
- Weight Reduction and Long-distance Truck and Bus Drivers
- Physical Activity and Reducing of Headaches
- Developing physical activity counselling
- VESOTE Effective Life-style Counselling for Social and Health Care
- Safety of Physical Activity
- Predictors of Lower Extremity Injuries in Team Sports PROFITS
- Risk Factors of Injuries and Injury Prevention in Youth Football
- Floorball Injuries – Epidemiology and Prevention
- Neuromuscular Exercise and Counseling Prevent Low Back Pain
- Effects of Exercise on Physical Functioning, Bone Strength and Fall Risk among Older Women
- Vitamin D and Exercise in Fall Prevention
- Effect of Vibration Training on Physical Functioning and Risk of Falling in Older People
- Fall-induced Injuries Among Older Adults in Finland
- LiVE: Sports and Exercise Safety Program in Finland
- KaatumisSeula: Implementation of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention for Communities
- Recent Presentations in Conferences
- WHO Europe HEPA Collaboration
Exercise Loading and Bone Structure
This cross-sectional study of athletes investigates the influence of sport-specific, long-term physical loading on the bone structure and geometry
Intensive and regular physical loading is a natural way to make bones strong and thus partly contribute to preventing fragility fractures. Athletes, in turn, represent convenient natural experimental groups with a specific, long-term and intensive loading history, not achievable by other way.
This study investigated the associations of sport-specific loading with the proximal femur structure and strength.
Three-dimensional cortical geometry of the proximal femora in 91 adult female athletes competing in different sports (aerobics, volleyball, swimming, racket sports, soccer, orienteering, weightlifting, cycling, speed skating, cross-country skiing and hurdling) and 20 habitually physically active women were determined using data from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Also dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) were done. The sports were categorized into high-impact, odd-impact, repetitive impact, high magnitude, and repetitive nonimpact loadings. Besides assessing various structural and geometric traits from the MR images of bones, finite element models (FEM) for each participant have been created and these models are being evaluated in different loading conditional and simulations.
Compared to high-impact exercises, established to be osteogenic, also moderate magnitude, odd impacts from unusual directions have similar ability to thicken those cortical regions at the femoral neck which have been vulnerable to fracture. Since the odd-impact exercises are mechanically less demanding to the body, this type of exercise can provide a reasonable basis for devising feasible, targeted bone training against hip fragility. In fact, all types of impact loading, including endurance running causing repetitive impacts, were associated with a stronger proximal femur in a simulated fall situation.
Harri Sievänen, Research Director
Niinimäki S, Narra N, Härkönen L, Abe S, Nikander R, Hyttinen J, Knüsel C, Sievänen H. The relationship between loading history and proximal femoral diaphysis cross-sectional geometry.Am J Hum Biol. 2017;29(4).
Abe S, Narra N, Nikander R, Hyttinen J, Kouhia R, Sievänen H. Exercise loading history and femoral neck strength in a sideways fall: A three-dimensional finite element modeling study.Bone. 2016;92:9-17.
Narra N, Nikander R, Viik J, Hyttinen J, Sievänen H. Femoral neck cross-sectional geometry and exercise loading.Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2013;33:258-66.
Nikander R, Kannus P, Rantalainen T, Uusi-Rasi K, Heinonen A, Sievänen H. Cross-sectional geometry of weight-bearing tibia in female athletes subjected to different exercise loadings.Osteoporos Int. 2010;21(10):1687-94.
Nikander R, Kannus P, Dastidar P, Hannula M, Harrison L, Cervinka T, Narra NG, Aktour R, Arola T, Eskola H, Soimakallio S, Heinonen A, Hyttinen J, Sievänen H. Targeted exercises against hip fragility. Osteoporos Int. 2009;20(8):1321-8.
Updated May 2018